All theoretical subjects for exams are taught along with private music lessons or separately throughout the year.

Music theory is the field of study that deals with how music works. It examines the language and notation of music. It seeks to identify patterns and structures found in composers’ techniques, across or within genres, styles, or historical periods. In a grand sense, music theory distills and analyzes the fundamental parameters or elements of music – rhythm, harmony (harmonic function), melody, structure, form, texture, etc.

Fundamentals of Music

Music has many different fundamentals or elements. These include but are not limited to: pitch, beat or pulse, rhythm, melody, harmony, texture, allocation of voices, timbre or color, expressive qualities (dynamics and articulation), and form or structure. Each of the above and related elements (i.e., “meter” and “tempo” would be related to “beat or pulse”), are discussed below. In addition to these “fundamentals” there are other important concepts employed in music both in Western and non-Western cultures including “Scales and/or Modes” and “Consonance vs. Dissonance”.

Source: Wikipedia